Thursday, November 21, 2019

The U.S Occupation of Japan (1945-1952) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

The U.S Occupation of Japan (1945-1952) - Essay Example Domestic and Foreign Policy The first phase of occupation which roughly started after the end of the war from 1945 to 1947 involved the most fundamental changes that took place in Japan. America punished Japan due to its past expansion and militarism by convening war crimes in Tokyo. During this time, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) dismantled Japanese army and banned the military officers from taking roles in political roles in the government (Drohan, 2007). During this time, SCAP land reforms that were meant in providing equality in land ownership to the tenants were acquired from the landlords who supported the Japanese expansionism in the 1930s. Demilitarization and Democratization Demilitarization of Japan was a guarantee to the America that Japan would never engage in military activities. In the first two years of occupation, the industrialists and officers blamed for the war were a further hedge against a revanchist threat. Democratization was a process undertaken by Americans in Japan that no other occupation force had done before. The America performed the democratization process through remarking the social, political, cultural and economic fabric Japan and changed them based on their way of thinking (Aldous, n.d.). The tough initiative was in writing the constitution that was to be used in Japan and compelling its acceptance by the Japanese diet. One of the factors that proved the success of the occupation in Japan was the Constitution that was developed by the Americans.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

My History about a Guard in the Mall Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

My History about a Guard in the Mall - Essay Example The guard looked like part of the furniture by virtue of his immobility. He was an inch or two shies of six feet and had a ruddy face. However, I could only see an outline of his nose and chin as he was not facing my direction. He had which I thought contrasted to his military style hair cut. On his head, he had blond crossly cropped like soldiers would be. He had on a well-starched blue short sleeved shirt and a pair of pants made of the same material. He had regulation boots, but it was the way he positioned his feet that made my neck snap up from my examination. From where I sat, I could tell his right shoe was clearly more buffed than the right one. I tried to play Sherlock Holmes and looked to see if he held his baton with his left hand. He did his holster was on the same side, so I concluded he was right-handed. He lifted up his face to examine something in the distance somewhere across the door his eyes were blue, and he had exceptionally busy eyebrows, which were not quite as brown as his hair. His eyes had a faraway look like a sailor trying to spy a distance inland from the deep sea. I wondered if he had been in the navy, and he seemed to be staring at a point far in the horizon even in an enclosed mall where there was not much of a horizon. His hands, which had shifted the baton to a peg on his belt, they were big pinkish callused hands which could have seen hard labor in the past. The fingernails on his left hand looked like they had been chewed on rather on rather than clipped. He stood with his feet apart, and this seemed to give him an element of stability as well as size. When he stood there, with his feet aside his hands constantly felt at his pockets area.  

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Write about Japan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Write about Japan - Essay Example The emperor appoints an executive prime minister. Shinzo Abe is the current premier of Japan. The capital city of Japan is Tokyo. This paper explains the economic changes that took place after the Second World War that turned Japan into an economic hub. The Second World War extensively destroyed properties in Japan and thousands of people lost their lives. Industries were not spared either and those that were running lacked industrial inputs. Japan had lost almost 25% of its wealth after the war (Osubo, 4). In 1952, Japan could have been categorized as an underdeveloped state. From 1952 to 1968, Japan adopted strategies that transformed it from a less developed country to an economic powerhouse only behind the United States of America. The availability of dedicated labor is among the factors that led to the growth of Japan to an industrialized nation. The young generation was migrated from the villages to towns to provide the necessary workforce that was required in the industries. The government also invested heavily in private industries and its policy to adopt new technologies from other nations led to the growth of industries such as the automobile industry. The government introduced local banks to offer financial assistance to the local business men to enhance their businesses. The return of Japan into the international stage allowed the international monetary fund to boost its economy. The government also encouraged locals to do savings that provided funds to be invested in the various sectors. The savings allowed Japan not to borrow from other countries with high interests. The education system was changed and modeled to resemble the American system where students were required to attend three years elementary and six years of high school education. When Prime Minister Hayato took office in 1960, he promised to double the economy in ten years. In fact, that was achieved in seven years. Other plans to grow the economy were

Friday, November 15, 2019

EBays Growth Strategies: An Analysis

EBays Growth Strategies: An Analysis To gain market in India, eBay has to change the way it operates. eBay.in has to develop and implement new strategies for the change management. Using the following table the best theory to use is Lippitts Phases of Change Theory. This theory consists of 7 steps and it mainly focuses on change agents roles and responsibilities compared to evolution of change in the organization. Implementing Lippitts phases of change theory on eBay.in The problem: eBay failed to make its impression in India, one main reason is the countrys internet and technology is still developing unlike in USA, where internet and technology growth reached its maturity level. People in India consider eBay as a virtual market, and so they dont believe in it, when compared to retail and wholesale markets. eBay is unable to adapt the different languages and cultures in the country so it is unknown to most of the people. Motivation and capacity for change: eBay has enough capacity for the change, and to localize itself in various states/cultures it needs to appoint local business people/change agents, who are familiar with local markets and the technology. Increase in fuel price, inflation, and recession are forcing people to choose other methods to purchase products they need, so eBay is the choice people have, and the change agent if able to inspire them the organization will grow strong in the market within few months. Change Agent and Resources: Recruiting those individuals who know the local market as well as have good knowledge about the internet and technology can be helpful. To check the motivation and commitment of the agent, he/she will be assessed through few interviews and other psychological tests. As the organization depends mainly on internet and technology, the required resources are available in India, like manpower, transportation, etc. Progressive change objects: Developing action plans and strategies with respect to different cultures and languages needs those language and culture experts, organization should employee those people before they build their strategies. The main goal here is to gain the customers belief and get close to them so they know the organization. Aims of this process are to decrease complexity and achieve operational excellence. Role of Change Agent: organization should define what they are expecting from the change agent, and change should be clear about what his/her duties are and should make it clear for the organization and other employees, and customers, by which no one gets confused in the process of change. Maintaining the Change: developing new strategies for marketing, like campaigns, advertisements about the organization and how the organization operates is very important for the organization. Taking feedbacks and review helps organization to understand how people are reacting and what are the other changes the organization needs to make, to increase belief on the organization? Change Agent: once organization reached a stage where people are believing in the organization and are able to communicate properly without any problem, the role of change agent should be lessened and the change process should be terminated slowly. What would you do differently if undertaking a project of this nature in the future? Following above steps can increase the belief of the people on the organization, but I would like to concentrate on one specific point i.e. existence of the organization in the virtual environment. The main reason, why people dont believe the eBay.in is because of its virtual existence, and I would like to change that in to physical existence. Both buyers and sellers are customers of the organization and they can do it online, but I would like to provide a small place/ business centre where people can come and meet directly and exchange goods or products. By this process people will be more attracted towards the organization and customers belief towards the organization increases. However, this contradicts with the idea of online marketing but, this process should be and will be followed only for few days, until and up to the organization gains the belief of its customers. And we use this business centre only for those customers who are willing to come and for complex situations to reduce complexity. Factors which can influence the change management process Power: many organizations follow hierarchical power i.e. managers take decisions, sometimes with the support of employees and sometimes without the support of employees, about the process and strategies that organization is going to follow. Here management of eBay considers buyers and sellers are equally powerful to make their own decisions. Culture: eBay is a massive community with unique culture. In the site individuals can find articles offering wider information than just auction listing or price lists or web site tools. eBay creates opportunities for people, it cares its customers, and making a difference in the world. It explains us the unique psychology, attitudes, and beliefs and values of the management and founders of eBay. Communication: organizational communication and interpersonal communication plays a vital role in effective change management. Organization communication is leader communicating with the employees through meeting, conferences, or electronic mails. This information in general is for everyone in the organization to explain new strategies or action plans to its employees. Interpersonal communication is communication between management and employees, in general to provide information on what they are expecting from the employees and what organization aims at. It is also useful in taking feedbacks as not all the employees work and learns at same-pace. Interpersonal communication increases relationship between employees and management which is very important for an organization to sustaining change. Conclusion: eBay was able to make a strong impact on the market in USA, UK, etc. because the growth of technology in these countries was too high. eBay inc primarily depend on the internet for its existence and without internet and technology it cannot exists. In countries like India, where internet and technology is still growing and didnt reach its maturity level, it is hard for the organization to grow and make an impact on the market. Education level of the customers also plays an important role in online business, developing new software to make selling and buying process simple also plays a role in the development of the organization. Technology is a macro environmental factor, meaning organizations like eBay cannot control or increase the growth of technology in markets like India. So, developing new strategies like building physical existence rather than virtual existence can make a difference, it is not necessary to start a retail market but proving a business centre, where people can come in case of necessary and delivery issues can increase belief of customers on the organization. Providing local language call centres and customers support centres also helps organization to grow in the developing markets. Change is necessary in the present world, increase in globalization and internationalization is forcing organization to change and develop new strategies to gain the markets and customers. Because of increase in competition organizations are changing their products and markets to gain competitive advantage. In one way or another change is coming into the organizations, and managing change is very important as improper manage of change can destroy organization. An American Born Chinese by Gene Luen Yang | Analysis An American Born Chinese by Gene Luen Yang | Analysis According to Chun, who has studied the typical Asian American stereotypes and the myth of their success, Asian American descendants have been pressured into assimilating within an inflexible mold of Americanization to avoid the anti-Oriental stereotypes and prejudices of American society (The Myth). Chuns observation indicates that minority youth in the United States are constantly hard pressed by the biased and unequal educational system that is majorly dominated by those who enjoy white privileges. Shim argues in his article, which introduces the history of yellow stereotypes in America since 1800s, that the entertainment industry plays a critical role to enforce and expand racist practices through the false presentation of Asian stereotypes (From Yellow). Based on the strong influence of the media to young generations, stereotypes are extensively imitated and exercised at schools. In American Born Chinese, a graphic novel written by an Asian American immigrant Gene Luen Yang, the author successfully communicates to the audience of unjustified stereotypes faced by Asian American youth that equally share his cultural background at schools (American). Themes Yangs primary message of the novel is to persuade students to overcome racial adversities and accept their true identities. He effectively utilizes pathos in the scenes where everyone dislikes Chin-Kees abnormal behavior and where Jin constantly has to fight against Asian stereotypes to highlight the hardships of acculturation of young generation in America. On the other hand, the implicit message of the novel is to allow educators to notice and seek for solutions on racial discrimination against non-white groups students that discourage their academic motivation and cultural preservation. In light of Yangs primary and secondary messages, the audience can learn that culture is not static or inherent for anyone. Instead, it is reproduced and learned by young generation as an account of evolving and complex progress through educational experience. Yang appeals to the greatest level of audience with three different genres and demonstrate to them the idea that minority youth culture is s haped and distorted in academic environment through the use of stereotyped behaviors, provocative language and ironic caricatures of Chin-Kee in the novel. Yang adopts three genres to targets audience from the general category of those who endeavor to identify their cultural heritage to the non-white minority groups in the American society. He expresses in an interview that, My Chinese heritage informs the way that I am an American (Youtube). These words indicate that Yang wants to draw the attention of Asian American immigrant specifically through the novel because of his academic experience. Nonetheless, the books increasing popularity successfully brought the attention of educators and critics of American power structures. He is able to reach different levels of audience for the reason that multi-culture education reflects the interaction of each individual pupil with the institutional system as well as the more complex economic-political society. Furthermore, Yang uses the comic book as the main genre, for that he regards comics as an individualistic pursuit that is intimate and reflective (Youtube). He also adopts sub-genres of sup erhero fiction and coming-of-age story in the novel to incorporate two different styles of stories that interrelate to each other. Three characters are portrayed by Yang in each story. All of them similarly feel the age to become Americanized with the expense of their original identity. The central characters include the Monkey King, who represents a superhero from the famous Chinese tale and Jin, who transforms himself into a typical white guy Danny to assimilate into American society. Yangs technique to adapt the old tale of Monkey King with some Catholic Elements proves that he successfully attracts not only Chinese American immigrants but also the audience from the dominant white culture. In addition, his own experience is reflected through the coming-of-age story, which persuades the wide range of audience of the novels credibility under the backdrop. In light of these methods, he inspires audience from various minority groups to discover and respect their cultural heritage. Stereotyped behaviors of Chin-Kee and Jin are depicted in the novel to present the distorted minority youth culture. Such students constantly face the hardships to accommodate and acculturate into American society. In anthropological terms, incommensurability refers to the fact that there are certain aspects of one culture that are hard for people from another culture to comprehend. According to American Born Chinese, Yang exaggerates scenes where Chin-Kee and Jin are constantly teased or excluded for the stereotyped behaviors by their white counterparts at school in order to reflect the incommensurable groups from the dominant culture. For instance, all the white students around Chin-Kee widely discuss about the fact that he eats crispy fried cat gizzards with noodle. Furthermore, the little white boy looks down upon Jin, who is introduced by the teacher on the first day of class. His expression very serious and disdainful, the boy insists that, My momma says Chinese people eat dogs . Yang goes on further to make the teacher respond that she thinks Jins family probably abandoned their old habit because they are eager to become like Americans (American Born Chinese).This two scenes indicates that the white students are unconsciously distinguishing between what we eat and what he eats. They fail to understand that this type of food, which they critically comment on, should not contribute to the reason why they regard their culture as more superior. As I have observed, Germans are frenzied about roasted pork feet. Also, Americans eat spam, a type of canned pork regularly. However, people from Islamic culture developed their eating habits that regard pork as dirty and inedible. Thus, the selection of food by people from different cultural backgrounds is idiosyncratic, and it should not be disrespected by anyone, for that otherwise the person automatically denies a part of his or her own culture. In the second scene, Yang intends to emphasize that educators should c ircumvent inequality and stereotypes while using their cultural power to teach students knowledge and the political structure. He arouses the audiences sympathy by presenting the critical stereotypes that the little boy Jin, who barely started his first day at an elementary school, has to experience. Jin not only encountered biased opinions from the teacher, but also the fellow classmates who spread rumors about his unusual relationship with a Japanese girl, Suzy Nakamura. At this point, the fact that white students concluded that Jin would marry Suzy once again implicates the students inability to notice that there are remarkable distinction between Chinese and Japanese culture although they both share the same Asian root. To a larger extent, the dominant groups falsely regard themselves as the mainstream culture and marked off a line between white society and the rest of others. This belief results in a subtraction process of minority youth culture that causes them to question the value of their original culture. Yang depicts the stereotyped opinions of Jins teachers and classmates to infer how academic environment influences Asian American immigrants like Jin to build their cultural identity. They need to constantly struggle between their original Asian blood and new Asian American citizenship. Also, through creating stereotypes from different angles of students and teachers toward Jin and Chin-Kee, Yang is able to persuade the audience that culture is a process that maintains the larger stratified system in American society. For instance, Jin assumes that he is not accepted by the dominant culture because of his racial identity. As a result of the cultural tension, he goes so far in the story as to transform himself into a white guy, Danny. Ironically, he ends up at a Chinese cafà © drinking Boba tea with Wei-Chen, the monkey, in a similar vein, who symbolically transforms into a human being. Jin abandons the American identity that he dreamed about. In this circumstance, the academic envir onment forced Jin to fight against his Chinese background to assimilate into the American society where white people rule the dominant culture. Yang deliberately set up the ending in which Jin ultimately recognizes that he should learn to appreciate his part of Chinese origin. This allows the minority immigrants under the similar context to understand that each culture encompasses unique practices and knowledge. The incommensurability is the product of students engagement in school activates. As a result, Yang shows how interactions among individuals empower the meaning of culture. He intends to emphasize that educators are responsible to inform the significance of culture and clarify the power structures beyond academic competence. Yang enhances the effect of Asian American stereotypes by applying rhetorical skills such as provocative language and ironic caricatures. Readers and Yang himself consider the language in American Born Chinese as unnecessarily crass (Yang, Kartika Review). Yang utilizes this style of language to transfer the idea that biased interrelationship of different cultures is unhealthy and uncivilized in a similar token. Furthermore, the categorized power structure influences younger generation to shape their notions toward a diversity of experience at school. For instance, Timmy, the white boy from Jins elementary school refers to Jin as bucktooth without any hesitation. He does not care what harm he causes Jin. On the other hand, Timmy changes his tone when he calls the other white friend Pansy Boy to a whisper due to his serious demand. Yangs use of transitional language here reflects Timmys perception of his position in the society. He visions white culture as more powerful and privileged , so that he verbally bullying the inferior races and compromise with the kid from his superior group. Lastly, Yang draws caricatures in the novel to symbolically refer to the exaggerated stereotypes that are placed on Asian American immigrants. For instance, Chin-Kee wears outdated clothing and has a physical appearance that looks like underdeveloped human beings. Also, Chin-Kee never changes his outfit throughout the novel and has long hair that only past ancestors do in China. Thus, through combining the Asian American stereotypes throughout the book with rhetorical devices such as language and caricatures, Yang successfully delivers the message that culture is not inherited but instead a process that is learned and shaped by power structures in the society through educational means. It is also described in the article Culture as Disability, written by McDermott and Varenne, that culture reveals not broken person but identifications neatly tuned to the workings of institutions serving political and economic ends. Yang intends to persuade educators that they should start to notice that it is their responsibility to respect each cultural practice and value. Although racial discrimination is hard to extinguish in the society, it is possible to educate young generation to appreciate their cultural heritage while assimilating into the American society. Most importantly, instructors should clarify the opportunity structure under the socio-economic context and ne atly tuned to explain the process of cultural construction. In this fashion, young generation may obtain different perspectives from It is because we are minority groups to We can make a difference because we are no different than people from the dominant culture. Electrical Stimulus in a Frog Muscle: Experiment Electrical Stimulus in a Frog Muscle: Experiment Frogs are keystone species, an essential organism to aquatic ecosystems. They have both terrestrial and aquatic niches as predators and prey and serve as indicator species to assess the response of ecosystems to environmental change. To execute daily locomotion patterns, frogs use skeletal muscles. We wanted to determine the relationship between the strength of the stimulus and the response of the muscle. We also wanted to measure the amplitude of contraction produced in a muscle that is stimulated with repeated pulses delivered at progressively higher frequencies. We hypothesized that increasing stimulus voltage in the gastrocnemius muscle of a frog will result in an increase in stimulation amplitude and that an increase in stimulation frequency at a constant voltage will result in an increase in force generated by the muscle up until a point where it plateaus. We found that our hypotheses were supported and that muscle regulation was via temporal and spatial recruitment. This study is important because it serves as a model for understanding skeletal muscle mechanisms in other organisms including humans. Frogs are widely distributed terrestrial amphibians that inhabit upland and wetland regions, found on all continents of the world except Antarctica. Many frog species, in both larval and adult stages serve as important prey for larger predators including fish, raccoons, snakes and birds of prey (Chalcraft and Resetarits 2003; Auniola and Kauhala 2001). Additionally frogs serve an important role as indicators of environmental stress (King 2010). A review of complex systems in temporary ponds by Wilbur (1997) makes the argument that frogs have two distinct niches, one terrestrial and one aquatic. Wilbur states all frogs with free-living larvae change at metamorphosis from aquatic omnivorous tadpoles to amphibious carnivorous adults. The role of such connections among food webs is a fruitful area for both theoretical and empirical research because the foraging of animals across ectones may be an important biological mechanism linking elements of the mosaics of habitats that form landsca pes. One trait frogs are most known for is locomotion. Frogs typically display two type of locomotion: jumping and swimming. Though frogs are traditionally presented as jump specialists most species also swim (Navas et al. 1999). Frogs exhibit these locomotive behaviors for a variety of reasons including escaping predators, often times by a short set of quick and powerful jumps (Carvalho, Gomes and Navas 2007). Frog locomotion is dependent on muscles, particularly skeletal muscles, which are muscles connected to the skeleton (Marsh and Olson 1998). Skeletal muscles are organized beginning with units called sarcomeres. A sarcomere consists of two opposing vertical Z-line discs each with actin filaments attached. A myosin filament floats between each horizontal actin section. Sarcomeres are connected to each other by Z-lines. One mechanism of muscle contraction begins with the sliding of the actin and myosin filaments. Parts of the myosin, known as myosin heads, bind to the free end of the actin, the end not attached to the Z-line, and pull it one way toward the center of the mysosin, in an accordian-like mechanism. The muscle shortens or contracts because the sarcomeres shorten. The process by which the myosin binds to the actin is called the Cross-Bridge cycle. The binding of the myosin to actin is the trigger for the myosin head to tilt and release an ADP and a P as well as a powerstroke. ATP binds to the myosin head and the myosin releases the actin, in a softening effect. The ATP is hydrolyzed and delivers energy to moved the mysosin head back and it is ready for the next powerstroke. The sarcomeres move closer together by many of these powerstrokes occurring one after the other. In the Cross-Bridge cycle myosin is normally prevented from binding to the actin. Another protein called tropomyosin, which is wrapped around the actin, is in the way to block the actin-myosin binding site. Another protein, troponin, is attached to the tropomyosin and when triggered, moves the troponin away to allow the binding to occur. But what triggers the tropomyosin to move the troponin? The simple answer is calcium and this occurs in a process called excitation-contraction coupling. In excitation-contraction coupling an action potential or electrical stimulus, runs down a T-tubule in the muscle fiber. The stimulus reaches a ryanodyne receptor which opens ion channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, a storage space for calcium in the muscle fibers. Once the ion channels are opened, calcium runs out into the cell. For the muscle to relax or return to its original resting position, calcium must be moved back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by a SERCA pump. Because calcium is being moved against a concentration gradient, this relaxation requires ATP. The SERCA pump lowers calcium levels in the cytosol or cell and when the calcium is taken up again the muscle relaxes. Since muscles are not contracting all the time muscle contraction must be regulated. Regulating the muscles allows frogs to change aspects of locomotive behavior, such as how far a frog is able to jump. Muscle contraction force can be regulated by calcium in three mechanisms: temporal recruitment, in which the firing rate at which individual motor neurons fire is changed; spatial recruitment, in which the number of active motor units is changed; and the length-tension relationship, in which the sarcomere length is changed to generate tension. This study focuses on the force of muscle contraction via temporal and spatial recruitment. In temporal recruitment, the frequency of the action potential is changed, usually increased, so that more calcium is released into the muscle cell. More calcium in the cell results in more tension generated. Another mechanism for the regulation of muscle contraction force is motor unit recruitment, also known as spatial recruitment. A motor unit is comprised of muscle fibers and a motor neuron. There are different amounts of fibers per motor unit. In spatial recruitment the number of active motor units is increased to increase the strength of muscle contraction. More motor units means that more muscle fibers can be stimulated. If only half of the muscle fibers are stimulated, only half the amount of force will be generated. If all of the muscle fibers are stimulated, the maximum amount of force will be generated. We hypothesized that if we increase voltage of an electrical stimulus in a frog muscle we will see an increase in stimulation amplitude and if we increase stimulation frequency at a constant voltage, we will see an increase in force generated by the muscle up until a point where it plateaus. Materials Methods: We used the gastrocnemius muscle of a frog in two experiments. In the first experiment we used a single stimulus, changing the voltage of the stimulus from 0 volts to 2.0 volts. The force of the muscle was recorded. In the second experiment we stimulated the muscle in series of ten using a constant voltage identified in the first experiment. The frequency of the stimuli was progressively increased starting at 0.5 and ending at 30 Hz. Results: Our results showed that as the stimulus increases the amplitude of the muscle twitches increases up until a point where it plateaus. Our results also showed that as the stimulation frequency increases the passive tension of the muscle increase up until a point where it plateaus. Figure 1 shows a normalized graph for the effects of increasing stimulus on the amplitude of muscle twitches in the gastrocnemius muscle of a frog. The x-axis is the recorded stimulus in volts and the y-axis is the amplitude of the twitches (displayed as a percentage of the maximum). The graph shows that as the stimulus increases the amplitude of the muscle twitches increases up until a point where it plateaus. Table 1 shows a set of group data from the first experiment, in which amplitude and times of muscle twitches were generated by stimulus pulses of different amplitudes. As in Figure 1, Table 1 shows that as the stimulus increases the amplitude of the muscle twitches increases up until a point where it plateaus. The contraction time and latency period remains largely unchanged with changing stimulus amplitude. Figure 2 shows a normalized graph for the effects of increasing stimulation frequency on the passive tension in the gastrocnemius muscle of a frog. The x-axis is the stimulus frequency in hertz and the y-axis is the passive tension in the muscle (displayed as a percentage of the maximum). The graph shows that as the stimulation frequency increases the passive tension of the muscle increase up until a point where it plateaus. Table 2 shows a set of group data from the second experiment, in which the strength of muscle contraction was examined during mechanical summation and tetanus. As in Figure 2, Table 2 shows that as the stimulus increases the amplitude of the muscle twitches increases up until a point where it plateaus. The amplitude of the first twitch remains largely unchanged with changing stimulus amplitude. Discussion: The data shows that the direct electrical stimulation produces contraction of the muscle via motor units. A little bit of force is generated when a few of these motor units are being used and a lot of force is generated when lots of motor units are being used. The muscle does not respond to the low stimulus voltages because the electrical stimulus is not directly touching the muscle, it is touching the surrounding connective tissue. The low stimulus voltages are not strong enough to penetrate the tissue. As noted in Figure 1 and Table 1 the amplitude of the muscle response increases with increasing stimulus voltages. This is so because more and more of the muscle mass is stimulated as the voltages increase. At high stimulus voltages, the muscle response reaches maximum amplitude. The muscle response does not continue to increase with increasing stimulus voltages because the muscle is already functioning at the best of its ability. The muscle cells have reached the point where all the troponins are activated by calcium. Releasing more calcium into the cell will not result in any more tension generated, as the system is already working at its maximum capacity. Latency is the interval between stimulus and a response to the stimulus, here meaning muscle contraction. Over this period, the action potential sweeps across the cell membrane of the muscle cell and the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions. The muscle fiber does not produce tension during the latent period, because the contraction cycle has yet to begin. The latency period in this study was constant at 0.025 seconds.This result been found by anyone else and it seems does not vary among other species, since it is roughly the same for humans (Hamilton and Osborn 1977). Since contraction amplitude is dependent upon the increases in concentration and persistence of intracellular calcium, the question of why the contraction amplitudes of single twitches are the same is raised. This can be explained because the same amount of calcium is being put in for the same repeated event. As noted in Table 2, the amplitude of the first twitch seems to be constant (value). This can be explained because the muscle is utilizing the same amount of calcium and is thus generating the same amount of force. Tetanus is the complete contraction of a muscle. Tetanus requires high stimulus frequencies. This tells us that the calcium re-uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum is slower than the original release. The rate of muscle relaxation is much slower after tetanus than after a single twitch because more calcium needs to be re-taken up and it takes longer to get all the extra added calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A study on jumping bullfrogs by Marsh and Roberts reveals two points of interest: first, frogs jump farther than they should, considering only the force their muscles are able to generate. Second, muscles are able to do the most work when they contract slowly, however frog jumping involves a very rapid movement. They explain that by separating the performance of muscular work from the application of mechanical work to the body, a catapult-like mechanism, which works by loading elastic elements into the limbs prior to initiating a jump, overcomes the constraints of skeletal muscle function (Marsh and Roberts 2003). Another study by Aerts and Nauwelaerts (2006) indicates that by taking more small jumps as opposed to fewer larger jumps, frogs can increase their flexibility in movement because they would be able to change direction during the forward movement part jumping. Theoretically this means they would spend less time in the same spot during landing and recovery of the jumping cycle, which makes them more likely to be snatched by a predator. Frogs have physiological mechanisms that have enabled their muscles to generate enough force for jumping and swimming locomotion including changing the frequency of the action potential and increasing the number of active motor units. As mentioned before, frogs are a keystone species, meaning other organisms rely on it and not always directly in a predator-prey relationship. Without frogs, food webs would collapse and lead to the demise of many other species and potentially entire ecosystems. This study is important because it serves as a model for understanding skeletal muscle mechanisms in other organisms including humans.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The Effects of Internet Addiction to Lifestyle and Dietary Behavior

Nutrition Research and Practice (Nutr Res Pract) 2010;4(1):51-57 DOI: 10. 4162/nrp. 2010. 4. 1. 51 The effects of Internet addiction on the lifestyle and dietary behavior of Korean adolescents Yeonsoo Kim *, Jin Young Park *, Sung Byuk Kim , In-Kyung Jung , Yun Sook Lim and Jung-Hyun Kim 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 4 § School of Human Ecology, Nutrition and Dietetics Program, Louisiana Tech University, LA 71272 USA Graduate school of Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea 3 Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, Seoul 110-793, Korea 4 Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756, Korea 5 Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea Abstract We performed this study to examine lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior based on the level of Internet addiction of Korean adolescents. Data were collected from 853 Korean junior high school students. The level of Internet addiction was determined based on the Korean Internet addiction self-scale short form for youth, and students were classified as high-risk Internet users, potential-risk Internet users, and no risk Internet users. The associations between the students’ levels of Internet addiction and lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior were analyzed using a chi-square test. Irregular bedtimes and the use of alcohol and tobacco were higher in high-risk Internet users than no risk Internet users. Moreover, in high-risk Internet users, irregular dietary behavior due to the loss of appetite, a high frequency of skipping meals, and snacking might cause imbalances in nutritional intake. Diet quality in high-risk Internet users was also worse than in potential-risk Internet users and no risk Internet users. We demonstrated in this study that high-risk Internet users have inappropriate dietary behavior and poor diet quality, which could result in stunted growth and development. Therefore, nutrition education targeting high-risk Internet users should be conducted to ensure proper growth and development. Key Words: Internet addiction, dietary behavior, diet quality, adolescents Introduction8) The Internet has become an important tool for social interaction, information, and entertainment [1]. However, as the Internet has moved into homes, schools, Internet cafes, and businesses, the prevalence of Internet addiction has been increasing rapidly. Internet addiction is characterized as poorly controlled Internet use, and can lead to impulse-control disorders [2]. Recently, Internet addiction, especially among adolescents, has been recognized as an important social issue in various countries because of the high prevalence of depression, aggressive behavior, psychiatric symptoms, and interpersonal problems associated with this addiction [3,4]. The incidence of Internet addiction in adolescents was estimated to be approximately 11% in China [2], 8% in Greece [5], and 18. 4% in Korea [1]. Adolescents are more vulnerable to Internet addiction than adults, and the social performance, psychology, and lifestyle habits of Internet addicts can be affected by this addiction [6]. Numerous cross-sectional studies have shown that Internet addiction has an adverse effect on several lifestyle-related factors in adolescents; it can result in irregular dietary habits, extended periods of time spent on the Internet [7], physical inactivity, short duration of sleep [2], and increased use of alcohol and tobacco [2,8,9]. Some studies have reported that the change in lifestylerelated factors caused by heavy Internet use could have an adverse impact on the growth and development of Internet addicts [2,7]. Nutritional status also plays a crucial role in growth and development during adolescence. Several studies have shown that malnutrition or unbalanced nutritional intake can reduce weight gain and decrease leg length in adolescents [9,10]. Optimal nutrition is therefore important for adolescents to grow and develop properly. Moreover, once dietary habits are formed during childhood, they tend to be carried on throughout adulthood, thus teaching adolescents to develop healthy eating habits is of critical importance [11]. Numerous studies have showed associations between Internet addiction and mental health problems, such as depression and psychiatric symptoms, among adolescents. However, information on the effects of Internet addiction on the dietary behavior of * Yeonsoo Kim and Jin Young Park are Co-first authors.  § Corresponding Author: Jung-Hyun Kim, Tel. 82-2-820-5278, Fax. 82-2-817-7304, Email. [email  protected] ac. kr Received: November 17, 2009, Revised: February 16, 2010, Accepted: February 16, 2010 ? 2010 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons. rg/licenses/by-nc/3. 0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 52 The effect of Internet addiction on dietary behavior adolescents is limited. Therefore, in this study, we examined the dietary behavior of Korean adolescents according to their level of Internet addiction. income per month, and the education level of the parents. A lifestyle habit questionnaire assessed the regularity of bedtime, sleep disturbance, and the use of alcohol and tobacco. Dietary behaviors and diet quality The dietary behavior questionnaire assessed recent changes in meal size, appetite, eating speed, frequency and reasons for skipping meals, and the frequency, type, and reasons for snacking. Diet quality was assessed by a 10-item mini-dietary assessment index. The mini-dietary assessment index was used to assess overall dietary quality based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and Food Tower for Koreans [13]. This index includes four food groups that should be consumed, four food groups that limited amounts of should be consumed, and two items regarding varied and regular diet. Responses to food items of which sufficient amounts should be consumed were reported using a 5-point Likert scale where 1=seldom, 3=sometimes, and 5=always. Responses to food items of which limited quantities should be consumed were also reported using a 5-point Likert scale where 1=always, 3=sometimes, and 5=seldom. The maximum possible score for diet quality is 50. In this study, diet quality was defined as â€Å"good† if the total score was greater than or equal to 30 [14]. Statistical analyses All analyses were performed with a significance level of ? =0. 05 using the SPSS software package version 12. (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Relationships between levels of Internet addiction and socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle patterns, and dietary behavior were analyzed using the chi-square test. The relationship between dietary quality and level of Internet addiction based on the self-scale rating system were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s mul tiple range test for multiple comparisons. Subjects and Methods Subjects This cross-sectional study included 1,000 adolescents from grades 7 through 9 living in Seoul, Korea. Of 1,000 participants, 800 students were recruited from eight junior high schools. The remaining 200 subjects were recruited from the Korean Youth Counseling Institute (KYCI), where they had been diagnosed and were being treated as Internet addicts. The study was conducted from October 2008 to November 2008. The Institutional Review Board of Chung-Ang University (Seoul, Korea) deemed this study exempt from the requirement for informed consent. Of the 1,000 surveys administered and collected, 147 were excluded due to incomplete responses and difficulty in assessing the level of Internet addiction, thus a total of 853 samples were analyzed in this study. Korean Internet addiction test (KS scale) Internet addiction was evaluated using the Korean version of the Internet addiction self-scale short form (KS scale) for youth, which was developed by the Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity and Promotion [12]. In brief, the KS scale for adolescents is a 20-item self-report questionnaire, consisting of six core components: disturbance of daily routines, self-esteem, withdrawal, virtual interpersonal relationship, deviant behavior, and tolerance. Response to each question is on 4-point Likert scale where 1 corresponds to â€Å"not at all†, 2 corresponds to â€Å"sometimes†, 3 corresponds to â€Å"frequently†, and 4 corresponds to â€Å"always†. The level of Internet addiction was categorized as either high-risk, potential-risk, or no risk based on the total score and the score for the three components of disturbance of daily routines, withdrawal, and tolerance. Subjects were classified as high-risk Internet users if their total score was the same or greater than 52, and/or if the score for disturbance of daily routine, withdrawal, and tolerance was greater than 16, 10, and 12, respectively. Subjects were classified as potential-risk Internet users if their total score was greater than or equal to 48 and less than 52 and/or if their score for disturbance of daily routine, withdrawal, and tolerance was greater than 14, 9, and 11, respectively. Subjects were classified as no risk Internet users if their total score was less than 48. Subject characteristics and lifestyle patterns The following socio-demographic characteristics of subjects were used in this analysis: age at the time of recruitment, family Results General characteristics of subjects The general characteristics of the participants and the relationships between the level of Internet addiction and general characteristics are provided in Table 1. Subjects were between the ages of 13 and 15 years with a mean age of 14. 0 years. More boys were high-risk Internet users than girls (31. 4% vs. 14. 0%), and more girls were no risk Internet users than boys (74. 7% vs. 58. 9%). Younger adolescents were significantly more likely to be highrisk Internet users than older adolescents (P < 0. 001). Household monthly income was significantly related to the level of Internet addiction; adolescents from households with a low monthly income (< 1,000 K won and 1,000 K-1,999 K won) were more likely to be high-risk Internet users (57. 5% and 31. 7%, respectively) Yeonsoo Kim et al. Table 1. Subject characteristics based on level of Internet addiction High risk (n=186) Gender Boys Girls Age (years) 13 14 15 Monthly income (Korean Won)2) < 1,000K 1,000K-1,999K 2,000K-2,999K 3,000K-3,999K ? 4,000K 53 Potential risk (n=90) 37 (9. 7) 53 (11. 3) 15 (7. 0) 46 (14. 5) 29 (9. 0) 3 (7. 5) 15 (12. 5) 25 (15. 8) 14 (7. 7) 28 (10. ) 28 (9. 7) 37 (10. 5) 17 (15. 2) 1 (4. 8) 41 (10. 4) 31 (10. 1) 9 (17. 3) 3 (13. 1) No risk (n=577) 225 (58. 9) 352 (74. 7) 126 (59. 2) 213 (67. 2) 238 (73. 7) 14 (35. 0) 67 (55. 8) 98 (62. 0) 139 (76. 4) 205 (74. 3) 183 (63. 1) 254 (72. 2) 78 (69. 6) 8 (30. 1) 261 (66. 2) 220 (71. 9) 36 (69. 2) 9 (39. 1) Total (n=853) 382 (100. 0) 471 (100. 0) 213 (100. 0) 317 (100. 0) 323 (100. 0) 40 (100. 0) 120 (100. 0) 158 (100. 0) 182 (100. 0) 276 (100. 0) 290 (100. 0) 352 (100. 0) 112 (100. 0) 21 (100. 0) 394 (100. 0) 306 (100. 0) 52 (100. 0) 23 (100. 0) P-value < 0. 001 120 (31. 4)1) 66 (14. 0) 72 (33. 8) 58 (18. 3) 56 (17. ) 23 (57. 5) 38 (31. 7) 35 (22. 2) 29 (15. 9) 43 (15. 6) 79 (27. 2) 61 (17. 3) 17 (15. 2) 12 (57. 1) 92 (22. 4) 55 (18. 0) 7 (13. 5) 11 (47. 8) < 0. 001 < 0. 001 Father’s education High school graduate & under College graduate Graduate school graduate Others Mother’s education High school graduate & under College graduate Graduate school graduate Others 1) < 0. 001 0. 008 N (%) 2) 1,250 Korean won = 1US dollar Table 2. KS-scale scores based on the level of Internet addiction Components Disturbance of daily routine Self-esteem Withdrawal Virtual interpersonal relationship Deviant behavior Tolerance Total 1) 2) Maximum score 24 4 16 12 8 16 80 High risk (n=186) 14. 97  ± 3. 21 1)a2) a a Potential risk (n=90) 13. 90  ± 3. 25 1. 69  ± 0. 84 4. 56  ± 1. 89 3. 93  ± 1. 46 8. 76  ± 2. 64 5. 22  ± 2. 21 b b c No risk (n=577) 9. 32  ± 2. 21 1. 32  ± 0. 61 5. 49  ± 1. 50 3. 78  ± 1. 41 2. 87  ± 1. 07 5. 90  ± 2. 04 c c Total (n=853) 11. 04  ± 3. 59 1. 60  ± 0. 85 6. 88  ± 2. 82 4. 62  ± 2. 58 3. 48  ± 1. 55 7. 23  ± 3. 07 34. 90  ± 11. 48 2. 41  ± 0. 94 7. 23  ± 2. 54 10. 56  ± 2. 59 5. 16  ± 1. 53 b c c c c a a a a b b b b 10. 61  ± 2. 97 50. 95  ± 8. 41 41. 06  ± 5. 29 28. 69  ± 6. 36 Mean  ± S. D Values with different superscript letters within a row are significantly different after Duncan’s multiple range test (P < 0. 05). than adolescents from households with a higher monthly income. Adolescents from households with high monthly incomes (3,000K-3,999K won and ? 4,000K won) were more likely to be no risk Internet users (76. 4% and 74. 3%, respectively). Parents’ educational status also affected the level of Internet addiction. High-risk Internet users had parents whose highest level of education was high school graduation or less (27. 2% in father and 22. 4% in mother, respectively). In contrast, a high proportion of no risk Internet users had parents who were college graduates (72. 2% in father and 71. 9% in mother, respectively). KS-scale score The total KS-scale score and the scores of the six components of the KS-scale are presented in Table 2. High-risk Internet users had significantly higher total KS-scale scores and scores for the six main components than potential-risk Internet users and no risk Internet users (P < 0. 05). Lifestyle patterns Lifestyle patterns, including bedtime, sleep disturbance, alcohol use, and tobacco use according to the level of Internet addiction are shown in Table 3. No risk Internet users had regular bedtime patterns (10. 4% always had a regular bedtime and 41. 8% often had a regular bedtime) while high-risk Internet users complained of irregular bedtime patterns (13. 6% reported often irregular bedtimes and 11. 4% reported always irregular bedtimes). Both high- and potential-risk Internet users suffered from sleep disturbances (81. 1% and 76. 7%, respectively). Similarly, 66% of 54 The effect of Internet addiction on dietary behavior Table 5. Snacking patterns based on the level of Internet addiction P-value Skipping breakfast 20 (10. 9)1) 15 (16. ) 49 (26. 6) 60 (10. 4) 95 (11. 2) < 0. 001 Yes No Skipping Lunch Yes No Skipping Dinner Yes No Oversleep No appetite Indigestion Snacking before a meal Weight loss Saving money Lack of time Habit Others ? 3 times/day Table 3. Lifestyle patterns based on the level of Internet addiction High risk (n=186) Bedtime Always regular Often regular 25 (27. 8) 241 (41. 8) 315 (37. 0) 30 (33. 3) 229 (39. 7) 328 (38. 5) 14 (15. 6) 6 (6. 7) 32 (5. 5) 15 (2. 6) 71 (8. 3) 42 (4. 9) Potential risk (n=90) No risk (n=577) Total (n=853) High risk (n=186) Potential risk (n=90) No risk (n=577) Total (n=853) P-value 0. 683 88 (47. 3) 1) 43 (48. 3) 228 (40. 1) 359 (42. 6) 46 (51. 7) 340 (59. 9) 484 (57. 4) 0. 177 6 (6. 8) 34 (6. 0) 56 (6. 7) 0. 049 98 (52. 7) 16 (8. 6) Neither regular or 69 (37. 5) irregular Often irregular Always irregular Sleep disturbance Yes No Alcohol use Yes No Tobacco use Yes No 1) 25 (13. 6) 21 (11. 4) 170 (91. 4) 82 (93. 2) 531 (94. 0) 783 (93. 3) 38 (20. 4) 15 (17. 1) 80 (14. 1) 133 (17. 0) 150 (81. 1) 69 (76. 7) 278 (48. 3) 497 (58. 4) < 0. 001 35 (18. 9) 21 (23. 3) 298 (51. 7) 354 (41. 6) 148 (79. 6) 73 (82. 9) 486 (85. 9) 707 (82. 8) 49 (28. 3) 34 (19. 7) 6 (3. ) 8 (4. 6) 10 (5. 6) 2 (2. 9) 25 (14. 5) 18 (10. 4) 18 (10. 4) 29 (15. 8) 51 (27. 7) 86 (55. 5) 4 (2. 6) 21 (13. 5) 22 (26. 2) 112 (21. 3) 183 (23. 4) 20 (23. 8) 122 (23. 2) 176 (22. 5) 6 (7. 1) 5 (6. 0) 8 (9. 5) 0 (0. 0) 6 (7. 1) 7 (8. 3) 13 (14. 4) 29 (5. 5) 21 (4. 0) 38 (7. 2) 2 (0. 4) 40 (7. 6) 44 (8. 4) 55 (9. 7) 41 (5. 2) 34 (4. 3) 56 (7. 2) 7 (0. 9) 64 (8. 2) 69 (8. 8) 97 (11. 5) 0. 004 0. 026 R easons for meal skipping 123 (66. 5) 58 (64. 4) 252 (43. 7) 433 (50. 8) < 0. 001 62 (33. 5) 97 (52. 4) 88 (47. 6) 32 (35. 6) 325 (56. 3) 419 (49. 2) 28 (31. 1) 90 (15. 6) 215 (25. 2) < 0. 01 62 (68. 9) 897 (84. 4) 637 (74. 8) N (%) Table 4. Recent changes in dietary habits based on the level of Internet addiction High risk (n=186) Changes in meal size Increased Decreased No change Changes in appetite Worse Bad No change Better Do not know Fast Average Slow Irregular 1) 10 (11. 9) 118 (22. 4) 153 (19. 5) Potential risk (n=90) No risk (n=577) Total (n=853) P-value Frequency of snacking 1-2/day 104 (56. 5) 65 (72. 2) 396 (69. 8) 565 (67. 2) 12 (13. 3) 116 (20. 5) 179 (21. 3) 50 (60. 2) 239 (47. 2) 375 (50. 4) 4 (4. 8) 8 (9. 6) 38 (7. 5) 46 (6. 2) 73 (14. 4) 102 (13. 7) 0. 245 4 (29. 0)1) 29 (32. 2) 164 (28. 6) 247 (29. 1) 62 (33. 3) 70 (37. 6) 25 (13. 4) 30 (16. 1) 72 (38. 7) 17 (9. 1) 42 (22. 6) 64 (34. 4) 71 (38. 2) 32 (17. 2) 19 (10. 2) 20 (22. 2) 127 (22. 2) 209 (24. 6) 41 (45. 6) 282 (49. 2) 393 (46. 3) 7 (7. 8) 11 (12. 2) 8 (8. 9) 21 (3. 7) 53 (6. 2) 0. 019 None Snack items Confectionery Soda 0. 001 80 (13. 9) 121 (14. 2) 78 (13. 6) 103 (12. 1) 43 (47. 8) 254 (44. 2) 369 (43. 4) 21 (23. 3) 142 (24. 7) 205 (24. 1) 37 (41. 1) 173 (30. 0) 274 (32. 2) 33 (36. 7) 271 (47. 0) 375 (44. 0) 11 (12. 2) 109 (18. 9) 152 (17. 8) 9 (10. 0) 23 (4. 0) 51 (6. 0) 0. 002 Ttokbokki, rameon, fried foods Fast foods Fruits Milk Others Hunger Lack of time for a meal Habit Boredom Social event Others 1) 12 (7. 7) 14 (9. 0) 15 (9. 7) 3 (1. 9) 86 (46. 7) 10 (5. 4) 28 (15. 2) 33 (17. 9) 17 (9. 2) 10 (5. 4) 3 (3. 6) 9 (10. 8) 8 (9. 6) 1 (1. 2) 26 (5. 1) 61 (12. 1) 55 (10. 9) 14 (2. 8) 41 (5. 5) 84 (11. 3) 78 (10. 5) 18 (2. 4) 0. 057 Changes in eating speed Reasons for snacking 46 (51. 1) 319 (55. 6) 451 (53. 2) 1 (1. 1) 22 (24. 4) 14 (15. 6) 5 (5. 6) 2 (2. 2) 30 (5. 2) 41 (4. 8) N (%) 79 (13. 8) 129 (15. 2) 98 (17. 1) 145 (17. 1) 34 (5. 9) 14 (2. 4) 56 (6. 6) 26 (3. 1) igh-risk Internet users and 64% of potential-risk Internet users had used alcohol. Fifty-two percent of high-risk Internet users had used tobacco while only 15. 6% of no risk Internet users had used tobacco. Dietary behavior and diet quality Recent changes in eating habits among adolescents are provided in Table 4. More of high-risk Internet users answered that their dietary habits had been chan ged to have small meal sizes, a poor appetite, and irregular eating speeds than no risk Internet users (P=0. 019, 0. 001, and 0. 002, respectively). High-risk Internet N (%) users had a high prevalence of skipping dinner (Table 5). High-risk Internet users snacked frequently, often snacking more than three times per day (15. 8% vs. 9. 7 % for no risk Internet users). Favorite snacks and reasons for snacking were not significantly different among adolescents based on levels of Internet addiction. Diet quality based on levels of Internet addiction is shown Yeonsoo Kim et al. Table 6. Diet quality based on the level of Internet addiction High risk (n=186) Potential risk (n=90) No risk (n=577) 3. 40  ± 1. 52b Total (n=853) 3. 25  ± 1. 58 1) 55 I eat more than one 2. 72  ± 1. 722)a3) 3. 36  ± 1. 36b serving of milk or dairy products every day. I eat several servings of meat, fish, egg, bean, or tofu every day. I eat vegetables and Kimchi every meal. I eat one serving of fruit or fruit juice every day. I eat three meals a day on a regular basis. I eat a variety of foods every day. I eat fried or stir-fried foods most of the time. I eat fatty meat most of the time. I add table salt or soy sauce to foods most of the time. I eat ice cream, cake, and/or drink soda between meals. Total 1) 2. 86  ± 1. 50a 3. 04  ± 1. 48a 3. 35  ± 1. 41b 3. 21  ± 1. 44 2. 83  ± 1. 63a 2. 91  ± 1. 69a 3. 11  ± 1. 48ab 3. 43  ± 1. 45b 3. 38  ± 1. 49b 3. 45  ± 1. 55b 3. 26  ± 1. 51 3. 32  ± 1. 9 2. 58  ± 1. 56a 2. 98  ± 1. 63b 3. 32  ± 1. 59c 3. 12  ± 1. 62 2. 86  ± 1. 60a 2. 85  ± 1. 57a 2. 98  ± 1. 48a 2. 78  ± 1. 42a 3. 38  ± 1. 45b 3. 35  ± 1. 45b 3. 16  ± 1. 42 3. 18  ± 1. 49 2. 72  ± 1. 50a 3. 26  ± 1. 67a 2. 73  ± 1. 50a 3. 07  ± 1. 59a 3. 28  ± 1. 56b 3. 53  ± 1. 52b 3. 10  ± 1. 58 3. 42  ± 1. 57 2. 80  ± 1. 72a 2. 80  ± 1. 50a 3. 29  ± 1. 54b 3. 13  ± 1. 59 28. 38  ± 6. 34a 30. 22  ± 6. 79b 33. 75  ± 6. 01c 32. 20  ± 6. 57 Diet quality was assessed by using 10-item mini-dietary assessment index developed by Kim [14]. Mean  ± SD 3) Values with different superscript letters within a row are significantly different (P < 0. 5) after Duncan’s multiple range test. 2) in Table 6. The diet quality of high-risk Internet users was significantly lower than that of potential-risk Internet users and no risk Internet users, respectively (P < 0. 05). Discussion In this study, we demonstrated that high-risk Internet users eat smaller meals, have less of an appetite, skip meals, and snack more than their potential-risk and normal-risk Internet user counterparts. Moreover, the diet quality of high-risk Internet users is poorer than that of potential-risk Internet users and no risk Internet users. The frequency of skipping dinner in high-risk Internet users was significantly higher than that in no risk Internet users. This finding is consistent with a study by Kim and Chun that reported a high incidence of meal skipping in Internet addicts [7]. The high frequency of skipping dinner could be related to snacking; more frequent snacking was observed in high-risk Internet users than no risk Internet users. Savige et al. also reported that adolescent heavy snackers skipped dinner more frequently than their non- or light-snacker adolescent counterparts [15]. Moreover, the favorite snacks of our participants were confectionery and fast food, which are nutritionally poor foods with high calories provided by fats and simple sugars but with few other nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. Thus high-risk Internet users have improper dietary behaviors that could impact their growth and development. The quality of the diet of high-risk Internet users as measured using a mini-dietary assessment index was poor. The mini-dietary assessment index that we used is a Korean version of the Healthy Eating Index in which scores over 30 indicate a good quality diet. In high-risk Internet users, the average total score was 28. 38, which indicates an â€Å"inappropriate† diet quality. High-risk Internet users had the lowest meal regularity score, reflected by a higher rate of skipping dinner in high-risk Internet users than no risk Internet users. Moreover, high-risk Internet users did not consume enough milk and dairy products, meat and fish, and fruits and vegetables compared with no risk Internet users. Proper intake of milk and dairy products as major sources of calcium during childhood is crucial for achieving optimal peak bone mass and maintaining and repairing bone tissue [16]. In addition, low consumption of fruits and vegetables in high-risk Internet users suggests low intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber in these individuals. Vitamins and minerals play a crucial role in energy production, maintenance of bone health, adequate immune function, and protection against oxidative stress [17,18]. Several studies have shown that proper fruit and vegetable intake can prevent health problems such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases [19-21]. High-risk Internet users not only consumed too little of the recommended food groups; they consumed more than the recommended daily quantities of fatty foods, fried foods, salt, and foods high in simple sugars. High fat and simple sugar intake increase the chance of being overweight or obese. Obese children and adolescents can have various adverse health outcomes, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome [22-24]. Furthermore, obese children have a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality when they reach adulthood [22,23]. The diet of high-risk Internet users, though it may meet their energy requirements, is lacking in nutritional value, and may therefore not support the growth spurt during adolescence and may cause nutrition-related health problems. High-risk Internet users drank and smoked more and had a poorer quality diet and higher frequency of meal skipping than no risk Internet users. Results from two cross-sectional studies on Korean high school students [8] and Taiwanese high school students [2] found a strong association between Internet addiction and high use of alcohol and tobacco. Alcohol and tobacco companies use the Internet to promote and advertise their products by using themes and icons of youth popular culture, games and contests, and commercially-sponsored websites and homepages [25]. Therefore, because high-risk Internet users are more likely to be exposed to tobacco and alcohol advertisements, 56 The effect of Internet addiction on dietary behavior 4. Seo M, Kang HS, Yom YH. Internet addiction and interpersonal problems in Korean adolescents. Comput Inform Nurs 2009;27: 226-33. 5. Siomos KE, Dafouli ED, Braimiotis DA, Mouzas OD, Angelopoulos NV. Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students. Cyberpsychol Behav 2008;11:653-7. 6. Ha JH, Kim SY, Bae SC, Bae S, Kim H, Sim M, Lyoo IK, Cho SC. Depression and Internet addiction in adolescents. Psychopa thology 2007;40:424-30. 7. Kim JS, Chun BC. Association of Internet addiction with health promotion lifestyle profile and perceived health status in adolescents. J Prev Med Public Health 2005;38:53-60. 8. Choi K, Son H, Park M, Han J, Kim K, Lee B, Gwak H. Internet overuse and excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Psychiatry Clin Neuosci 2009;63:455-62. 9. Gunnell DJ, Smith GD, Frankel SJ, Kemp M, Peters TJ. Socioeconomic and dietary influences on leg length and trunk length in childhood: a reanalysis of the Carnegie survey of diet and health in prewar Britain (1937-1939). Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1998;12:96-113. 10. Sachar RK, Singh H, Soni RK, Singh WP, Bhatia RC, Raizada N, Singh B. A cross-sectional study of growth parameters of rural adolescent girls of Punjab. Indian J Matern Child Health 1997;8:21-5. 11. Vadiveloo M, Zhu L, Quatromoni PA. Diet and physical activity patterns of school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109: 145-51. 12. Kim DI, Chung YJ, Lee EA, Kim DM, Cho YM. Development of Internet addiction proneness scale-short form (KS scale). The Korean Jounal of Counseling 2008;9:1703-22. 13. The Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary reference intakes for Koreans. Seoul: KokJin Co. ;2005. 14. Kim WY, Cho MS, Lee HS. Development and validation of mini dietary assessment index for Koreans. The Korean Journal of Nutrition 2003;36:83-92. 15. Savige G, Macfarlane A, Ball K, Worsley A, Crawford D. Snacking behaviors of adolescents and their association with skipping meals. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2007;4:36. 16. Petrie HJ, Stover EA, Horswill CA. Nutritional concerns for the child and adolescent competitior. Nutrition 2004;20:620-31. 17. Wardlaw GM, Hampl JS. Perspectives in Nutrition. New York: McGraw-Hill International Co. ; 2007. p. 295-463. 18. Omenn GS. Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) as cancerpreventive agents. IARC Sci Publ 1996;139:33-45. 19. Davis EM, Cullen KW, Watson KB, Konarik M, Radcliffe J. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students’ consumption of fresh produce. J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109:1227-31. 20. Lorson BA, Melgar-Quinonez HR, Taylor CA. Correlates of fruit and vegetable intakes in US children. J Am Diet Assoc 2009; 109:474-8. 21. Miriran P, Noori N, Zavareh MB, Azizi F. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Metabolism 2009;58:460-8. 22. Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1650-6. 23. Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics they are more likely to drink and smoke than other Internet users. Furthermore, high frequency of use of tobacco and alcohol can exacerbate diet-related problems, because smoking and drinking are negatively associated with diet quality and dietary behaviors such as meal regularity [26,27]. High-risk Internet users reported more irregular sleep patterns and more episodes of sleep disturbance than no risk Internet users. This is consistent with a previous study of Korean adolescents that showed that Internet addiction was associated with insomnia, apnea, and nightmare [8]. In addition, sleep disturbance could increase the risk of mental health problems as well as substance abuse [6,28,29,30]. Hence, high-risk Internet users are more likely to experience physical and mental health problems. This study has some limitations. First, this study was a cross-sectional study, therefore we could not confirm causal associations between Internet addiction and dietary behavior. Second, the questionnaire was self-reported. It is therefore possible that some of the adolescents may not have admitted to using alcohol and tobacco due to social restrictions, even though this study was anonymous. High-risk Korean adolescent Internet users had improper dietary behavior and a poorer diet quality than their no risk Internet counterparts. To ensure that the growth and development of high-risk Internet users is not adversely impacted, their diets should be supplemented with the nutrients that they are lacking. Interventions to improve both dietary behavior and treat Internet addiction may have synergistic health benefits. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that children should be educated as to what a balanced diet and optimum physical activity routine is to remain healthy and grow. Furthermore, the government should take an active role in designing and evaluating Internet addiction-related health intervention strategies. Given the likely adverse effects of Internet addiction on adolescents’ development because of poor dietary behavior, it is critical to raise awareness about Internet addiction. Close attention should be paid to students at risk of Internet addiction, as well as students at low risk to prevent them from becoming addicted to the Internet. References 1. Tsitsika A, Critselis E, Kormas G, Filippopoulou A, Tounissidou, Freskou A, Spiliopoulou T, Louizou A, Konstantoulaki E, Kafetzis D. Internet use and misuse: a multivariate regression analysis of the predictive factors of Internet use among Greek adolescents. Eur J Pediatr 2009;168:655-65. 2. Lam LT, Peng ZW, Mai JC, Jing J. Factors associated with Internet addiction among adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav 2009; 12:1-5. 3. Ko CH, Yen JY, Liu SC, Huang CF, Yen CF. The associations between aggressive behaviors and Internet addiction and online activities in adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2009;44:598-605. Yeonsoo Kim et al. 1999;103:1175-82. 24. Kim HM, Park J, Kim HS, Kim DH, Park SH. Obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean children and adolescents aged 10-18 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998 and 2001. Am J Epidemiol 2006;164: 787-93. 25. Levy JA, Strombeck R. Health benefits and risks of the Internet. Journal of Medical Systems 2002;6:495-510. 26. Strine TW, Okoro CA, Chapman DP, Balluz LS, Ford ES, Ajani UA, Mokdad AH. Health-related quality of life and health risk behaviors among smokers. Am J Prev Med 2005;28:182-7. 27. Teufel NI. Alcohol consumption and its effect on the dietary 57 patterns of Hualapai Indian women. Med Anthropol 1994;16:79-97. 28. Roane BM, Taylor DJ. Adolescent insomnia as a risk factor for early adult depression and substance abuse. Sleep 2008;31:1351-6. 29. Yen JY, Ko CH, Yen CF, Wu HY, Yang MJ. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility. J Adolesc Health 2007;41:93-8. 30. Yen CF, Ko CH, Yen JY, Chang YP, Cheng CP. Multidimensional discriminative factors for Internet addiction among adolescents regarding gender and age. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2009;63:357-64.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

A Mystery Note

The first few notes of the alarm clock prised open Amber's eyes and she stumbled out of bed, standing on an up-ended plug as she did so. She didn't have time for the pain; she had a Spanish test first thing and with a bit of luck she'd be able to catch the early bus to school so she could fit in a bit of revision before class. The floorboards creaked under her feet as she got changed. Everything here seemed to creak, the place was a wreck and she couldn't wait 'till she was old enough and more importantly have enough money to move out but that was unlikely. Amber's life had fallen apart bit by bit since the day she was born. Apparently her mum was put into a permanent coma after a car crash on her way to the hospital. Amber supposedly was a twin but something happened to her sister and that's how she ended up here, in an orphanage that looked like it was going to fall apart the minute another no-hoper walked through it's doors. â€Å"Get up Chloe,† Amber said, Shaking her roommate vigorously in attempt to wake her up. â€Å"I'll get up, just five more minutes,† Chloe murmured sleepily but Amber had to leave in a minute and she knew Chloe would probably never get up so she grabbed the covers and chucked them to the other side of the room. Satisfied, she grabbed her bag and the watch she got two weeks ago from Chloe for her fifteenth birthday and set off for school. Amber managed to squeeze in a few minutes of revision before the test but It wasn't exactly easy getting folders out because the wind had picked up and by the time she'd got to the classroom her usually neat black hair looked like something from ‘Jeepers Creepers.' The test took the best part of two hours – too long, thought Amber. She was relieved when the bell finally run and she practically sprinted out before Seniorita Belanto remembered about the homework due today. â€Å"Amber!† She nearly had a heart attack when the powerful voice of her manly P.E. teacher, Mrs Stevenson came booming at her. â€Å"Yes, Mr†¦I mean, Mrs Stevenson?† Amber said cheekily, wondering why the sudden need for her P.E. teacher to come rushing after her like an overweight lion. â€Å"Some guy passed a note onto me to give to you,† She grunted. She threw the piece of paper but Amber missed it and she had to crawl about the floor dodging numerous people who thought walking backwards as fun as walking normally. â€Å"Gotcha!† Amber shouted a little too loudly as everyone in the corridor stared at her on her hands and knees. She opened the piece of paper and read: Thanks a bunch for your help. I owe you one, Jay Connors â€Å"What the†¦?† She said. She looked around for Mrs Stevenson but she'd already been absorbed by the crowd. There must've been a mistake, she hadn't helped someone, had she? After school she decided to walk home and on the way she asked a few people from school if they knew who Jay Connors was. â€Å"Who?† Most of them said, but she hit the bonus when she asked the new kid in her Maths class. â€Å"You didn't think to ask me first, did you?† He replied, grinning. Amber looked puzzlingly at him but then he explained. â€Å"I'm Matthew Connors, Jay's brother,† he grinned. Amber realised then that she'd been stupid; who better to ask than the only person in school with the same surname as the mysterious Jay? â€Å"If your looking for Jay he'll be indoors by now.† He pressed the traffic lights button and the green man showed a few seconds later. Amber stood were she had been for the past few minutes looking like an idiot. What now? Did he expect her to follow him? Matthew looked back, â€Å"Come on then, what you waiting for?† Apparently Jay had been in a car crash yesterday and his car was a total wreck so he couldn't go to his work today. Amber was amazed at how he managed to cram every tiny detail into a space of two minutes. By the time they got there Amber seemed to know everything about Jay. They rang the doorbell and Jay answered. â€Å"Hey Matt, Alex! Nice to see you again.† He said â€Å"Alex? I'm not†¦I'm Amber.† This conversation was getting to be one of the most confusing of her life. â€Å"What†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Jay began but Matt butted in. â€Å"This is Amber, she's in my class.† Jay looked like someone had just put one of Einstein's maths problems in front of him. Just then someone was walking along the pavement and Jay and Matt both looked stunned. â€Å"Alex†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Amber turned around and couldn't believe what she was seeing. It was like she was looking in the mirror. It was her. Alex turned round and saw Amber, shock exploded on her face. Five minutes later Amber had forgot the shock because after a brief discussion with Alex, hope suddenly came into Amber sight. Was this her twin? Could this be possible? Could her mum be alive? She was, she had to be. â€Å"Alex, dinners out.† a figure emerged from a house but at the same time Amber heard a rumble and a huge shadow cast over her, all of the hope that had build up inside her was shattered as flight 755 rapidly lost altitude. In a split-second the world had turned black and she only caught one glimpse of her mother's face. That was the first and last time she ever saw it.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Full Metal Jacket persuasive essays

Full Metal Jacket persuasive essays Throughout my life I have always had an interest in war movies, in particular, Vietnam War movies. I was intrigued by Apocalypse Now and Platoon, but the first time I watched Full Metal Jacket there was more to it. The usual Vietnam War movie consists of extreme action and over played emotions. Full Metal Jacket was different because it had more. The humor and raw emotion of the first act drew me in., and the acting was sensational throughout the movie. Above all that it had a wonderful soundtrack and still carried out with the historical accuracy of Vietnam. For all of these reasons I find Full Metal Jacket to be the best Vietnam War movie. In most Vietnam War movies the first scene start out on the battle field, and the war is the main conflict. In Full Metal Jacket the movie starts out with the soldiers going through Marine Corps boot camp. This extra scene adds much more reality to the movie, by showing what soldiers had to go through from the start. The opening scene begins at Parris Island with the recruits first day of training. This scene is where the senior drill instructor, played by a real Marine drill instructor, is introduced. He walks around the room yelling at his recruits., and giving them comedic nicknames. The main characters of the movie are introduced at this time. Private Joker is named by the drill instructor because of his out of line John Wayne imitations (Listen heyah, Pilgrim), Cowboy is nicknamed because he is from Texas and as senior drill instructor said, Only steers and queers come from Texas. The next character is only shown in act one because he commits suicide at the end of act one. H is nickname is Gomer Pyle. As you can imagine, Gomer Pyle is an overweight klutz. Much of the boot camp scenes concentrate on Gomer Pyles struggle with the drill instructor. The struggle of Gomer Pyle adds the true raw emotion. I found that it showed very well the suff ...